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Saturday, May 2, 2020 | History

3 edition of Potential constraints on cumulative global production of chlorofluorocarbons found in the catalog.

Potential constraints on cumulative global production of chlorofluorocarbons

W. E. Mooz

Potential constraints on cumulative global production of chlorofluorocarbons

  • 250 Want to read
  • 23 Currently reading

Published by Rand in Santa Monica, CA .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Fluorocarbons industry -- Government policy.,
  • Chlorofluorocarbons -- Environmental aspects.

  • Edition Notes

    StatementWilliam E. Mooz, Kathleen A. Wolf, Frank Camm ; prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
    ContributionsWolf, Kathleen A., Camm, Frank A., 1949-, United States. Environmental Protection Agency., Rand Corporation.
    Classifications
    LC ClassificationsHD9660.F562 M66 1986
    The Physical Object
    Paginationxiii, 69 p. ;
    Number of Pages69
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL2716865M
    ISBN 100833007173
    LC Control Number86010010

    Chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs (also well-known as Freon) are non-toxic, non-flammable and non-carcinogenic. They mainly contains fluorine atoms, carbon atoms and chlorine atoms. Challenge Problems Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 1 1 Production of Chlorofluorocarbons, – Production of Chlorofluorocarbons, – Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were first produced in the laboratory in the late s. They did not become an important commercial product until some time later. Eventually, CFCs grew in. C: Increased global precipitation will probably not result in increased food production. D: Ocean temperatures should not be affected and thus ocean currents should remain stable. If the risk of developing skin cancer increases by one percent for every six miles closer to the equator one lives, what would be the increased risk of moving. Production of Chlorofluorocarbons, – Production of Chlorofluorocarbons, – Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were first produced in the laboratory in the late s. They did not become an important commercial product until some time later. Eventually, CFCs grew in popularity until their effect on the ozone layer was discovered in.


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Potential constraints on cumulative global production of chlorofluorocarbons by W. E. Mooz Download PDF EPUB FB2

Additional Physical Format: Online version: Mooz, W.E. Potential constraints on cumulative global production of chlorofluorocarbons. Santa Monica, CA. Observers have suggested a wide range of potential supply constraints, two of which could have a significant effect on long-run cumulative emissions: (1) regulation-induced disincentives to invest in new CFC production capacity, and (2) natural limits on the economic availability of the fluorine used to manufacture CFCs.

Presents estimates of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and precursor chemical production for the historical periodand projections for production in the absence of policy action.

Examines effects on producing industries of limiting CFC emissions under a mandatory control strategy and various economic incentives strategies. Potential constraints on cumulative global production of chlorofluorocarbons.

Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Santa Monica, Calif., Rand, 69 p. HDFM66 The effect of chlorofluorocarbons on the ozone layer: hearing before the Subcommittee on Toxic Substances and Environmental Oversight of the.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are fully or partly halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (C), hydrogen (H), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and are also commonly known by the DuPont brand name Freon.

The most common representative is dichlorodifluoromethane (R or Freon). John Willoughby, in Plant Engineer's Reference Book (Second Edition), Chlorofluorocarbons. Chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs used to be used in the manufacture of a range of plastic insulants, including polyurethanes, phenolics, polyisocyanurates and extruded polystyrenes.

CFCs are the main cause of the hole in the ozone layer. The Montreal Protocol called for the. chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Organic compounds made up of atoms of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine. An example is Freon (CCl2F2), used as a refrigerant in refrigerators and air conditioners and in making plastics such as Styrofoam.

Browse Global Production available here online. Browse global production on sale. Global Production in stock. Buy Global Production on eBay now. Sony Mcx - $2, Sustainable Potato Production Global Case Studies English Hardcover Book Free Global Risk-based - $ Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): Health Information Summary Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are a group of colorless, non ­combustible liquids, also known as Freons.

CFCs have been used as refrigerants, propellants in aerosols, metal degreasers, i n fire extinguishers, and as a dry cleaning solvent. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are to blame for global warming since the s and not carbon dioxide, according to new research from the University.

Start studying Chlorofluorocarbons. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. out of the production of CFCs and other ozone depleting chemicals.

As a result of Rowland and Molina’s. work, humans for the first time realized that their activities could affect Earth’s environment on a planetary scale. As Molina says today, “It doesn’t matter where CFCs are emitted. It is a global problem. The Global Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) Market Research Report Forecast is a valuable source of insightful data for business strategists.

It provides the Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) industry overview with growth analysis and historical & futuristic cost, revenue, demand and supply data (as applicable). Use of Chlorofluorocarbons in Hydrology: A Guidebook [International Atomic Energy Agency] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are nontoxic, nonflammable chemicals containing atoms of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine. They are used in the manufacture of aerosol sprays, blowing agents for foams and packing materials, as solvents, and as refrigerants. CFCs are classified as halocarbons, a class of compounds that contain atoms of carbon and.

Chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs (also known as Freon) are non-toxic, non-flammable and non-carcinogenic. They contain fluorine atoms, carbon atoms and chlorine atoms. The 5 main CFCs include CFC (trichlorofluoromethane - CFCl 3), CFC (dichloro-difluoromethane - CF 2 Cl 2), CFC (trichloro-trifluoroethane - C 2 F 3 Cl 3), CFC A paper published in an obscure physics journal by the University of Waterloo's Qing-Bin Lu () has drawn quite a bit of media attention for blaming global warming not on carbon dioxide, but rather on chlorofluorocarbons (CFC s, which are also greenhouse gas es).

However, there are numerous fundamental flaws in the paper, which is based almost entirely on correlation (not causation) and. Atmospheric Environment Vol. 27A. 4, pp.~/93 $+ Printed in Great Britain.

Pergamon Press Ltd GLOBAL WARMING FROM CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS AND THEIR ALTERNATIVES: TIME SCALES OF CHEMISTRY AND CLIMATE MALCOLM K. Ko, NIEN OAK SZE and GYULA MOLNAR Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc., Memorial Drive. Define chlorofluorocarbon. chlorofluorocarbon synonyms, chlorofluorocarbon pronunciation, chlorofluorocarbon translation, English dictionary definition of chlorofluorocarbon.

and fluorine, once used widely as aerosol propellants and refrigerants. Volatile chlorofluorocarbons are believed to cause depletion of the atmospheric ozone layer. Chlorofluorocarbons, also known as CFCs, consist of chemical compounds made up of chlorine, fluorine and carbon. CFCs are particularly harmful when released into the atmosphere because of their destructive reaction with O-zone particles, which provide the Earth with a.

One estimate is that every chlorine atom in the stratosphere destroysozone atoms before the chlorine is converted to an unreactive form. Chlorofluorocarbons trap more heat in the atmosphere per molecule than other substances.

The global warming potential of CFC is times that of CO 2. CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are a class of chemicals that contain only atoms of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine. As a group, they are unreactive, stable, and poorly soluble in water.

Commercially, the most important CFCs were derivatives of methane and ethane. The world production of CFCs reachedtonnes in (Crutzen ), after growing at an average rate of about 9 per cent in the s (Molina and Rowland ). The total production of CFCs and halons amounted to 1, tonnes inbefore falling to.

chlorofluorocarbons (klōr'əflo͝or`əkär'bənz, klôr'–) (CFCs), organic compounds that contain carbon, chlorine, and fluorine atoms. CFCs are highly effective refrigerants that were developed in response to the pressing need to eliminate toxic and flammable substances, such as sulfur dioxide and ammonia, in refrigeration units and air conditioners.

View Homework Help - Written environment 3 from ENVIRONMEN NSCI at Maharishi University of Management. Chlorofluorocarbon Reduction Efforts. Chlorofluorocarbon Reduction Efforts. Andrew. The pattern of global and United States production of CFCs is shown in Figure Production of the rest of the world is obtained by subtracting US production from global production figures.

World production of CFCs rose from metric tons in tometric tons in (Alternative Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study, ). The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the zone Layer (and its later versions) called for the phasing out of both chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and bromofluorocarbons (BFCs).Specifically, the treaty called for the discontinuation of production of CFCs and some related compounds (e.g., carbon tetrachloride and methyl chloroform) by January 1, Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) are gases used for various purposes including solvents,refrigerants and aerosol are organic chemicals and contain carbon, (sometimes hydrogen,) chlorine, and were much used in the middle 20th century, replacing chemicals that were toxic or flammable or had other problems.

InSweden became the first country that banned CFC products. chlorofluorocarbons chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) DIF: 1 OBJ: The natural heat-trapping ability of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere is known as the _____. ANS: greenhouse effect DIF: 1 OBJ: DoD, GSA, and NASA are issuing a final rule amending the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to implement Executive branch policy in the President's Climate Action Plan to procure, when feasible, alternatives to high global warming potential (GWP) hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

This final rule will. Production and use of chlorofluorocarbons are being phased out under international agreements to protect the ozone layer, which reduces the amount of ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface. This report summarizes the status of the chlorofluorocarbon industry and the applications of.

CFCs have ozone-depleting potential (ODP); thus, it is identified as an ozone-depleting substance (ODS). Canada is a Party to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, which requires Parties to gradually phase-out production and consumption of ODS, as well as reduce and eliminate trade in these substances.

WATERLOO, Ont. (Thursday, ) - Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are to blame for global warming since the s and not carbon dioxide, according to new research from the University of Waterloo published in the International Journal of Modern Physics B this week.

CFCs are already known to deplete ozone, but in-depth statistical analysis now shows that CFCs are also the. CFC's or Chlorofluorocarbons were widely used as refrigerants until it was phased out for the ozone friendly RA due to the Montreal protocol.

CFC's do in fact have high global warming potential as do all halogenated molecules. As much as 10, times the global warming potential of CO2. So this theory has plausibility. Sources of hydrochlorofluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons and fluorocarbons and their potential emissions during the next twenty five years.

McCulloch A(1). Author information: (1)ICI Chemicals & Polymers Ltd., WA7 4QF, Runcorn, United Kingdom. In common with CFCs, the classes of compounds in the title have wholly anthropogenic sources. Abstract. In common with CFCs, the classes of compounds in the title have wholly anthropogenic sources.

CFCs are used for refrigeration, air-conditioning, foam blowing, solvent cleaning and propelling aerosols and, in each case, equipment has been designed to make the most efficient use of the properties of individual compounds.

A Global Effort to Phase Down Hydrofluorocarbons. Octo Scaling back the use and production of HFCs is a critical part of fighting climate change, which is why the Obama Administration has made it a key component of its Climate Action Plan.

these actions will reduce cumulative global consumption of these greenhouse gases by. On Septem27 nations signed a global environmental treaty, the Montreal Protocol to Reduce Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer that had a provision to reduce production levels of these compounds by 50% relative to before the year Unfortunately, this book can't be printed from the OpenBook.

If you need to print pages from this book, we recommend downloading it as a PDF. Visit to get more information about this book, to buy it in print, or to download it as a free PDF. Identify the origins of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) and halons in the atmosphere A haloalkane is a compound in which one or more H atom/s of an alkane has been replacd by a halogen atom.

A halogen atom is any element which belongs to the halogen group on the periodic table. CFC’s or chlorofluorocarbon’s are compounds containing carbon, chlorine and fluorine only – as a result, the.

The good news about the ozone hole is even better than you think The shrinking hole is a powerful reminder that multinational cooperation can solve big environmental ills.Gasses covered under the Montreal Protocol and utilized for refrigeration, ventilating, bundling, insulation, solvents, or aeroslo they are not wrecked in the lower atmosphere, CFCs float into the upper atmosphere where, given reasonable conditions, they destroy ozone layer.Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are nontoxic, nonflammable chemicals containing atoms of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine.

They are used in the manufacture of aerosol sprays, blowing agents for foams and packing materials, as solvents, and as refrigerants.